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Adopted 15 February 1988, having regard to Article 13, Paragraph b) of the Helsinki Convention




RECALLING that according to Article 6 of the Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area, 1974, (Helsinki Convention), the Contracting Parties shall take all appropriate measures to control and strictly limit pollution by noxious substances,


RECALLING ALSO that Annex II of the Helsinki Convention defines lignin substances contained in industrial wastewaters as noxious substances for the purposes of Article 6 of the Convention, and that Annex III of the Convention defines organic substances and nutrients as substances to be controlled to minimize land-based pollution of the marine environment,


RECOGNIZING that the pullp and paper industry is a major source of water pollution,


RECOGNIZING FURTHER that the kraft pulp mills are responsible for an important part of the discharges from the pulp and paper industry into the Baltic Sea,


DESIRING to limit the discharges of this industry with best available technology, *)


DESIRING ALSO more information about the discharges from the pulp and paper industry,


RECOGNIZING the importance of reducing the discharges of the pulp and paper industry

  a) to minimize the hazards to human health and to the environment from toxic, persistent and bioaccumulative substances;

  b) to reduce oxygen-consuming discharges so as not to cause oxygen deficiency of any significance, nor to impair the habitat of the characteristic fish populations;

  c) to reduce nutrient discharges so as not to cause eutro­phication on any significance;

  d) to avoid tainting, to the extent possible, of taste or smell of fish by wastewater, as well as changes in the organoleptic properties of water;

  e) by developing industrial processes, in particular bleaching techniques for pulp, and treatment techniques for wastewater, and by preventing incidental effluent discharges so as to minimize the adverse effects of wastewater discharges;

  f) by developing effluent treatment techniques that minimize the amount of sludge created. At the same time maximal utilization and further processing of the sludge shall be aimed at,


RECOMMENDS that the Governments of the Contracting Parties take measures to reduce the discharges from pulp and paper industry, namely

for bleached kraft pulp

  g) that in the production of bleached kraft pulp within the catchment area of the Baltic Sea the load of TOC1 (Total Organic Chlorinated substances measured as chlorine) should be reduced considerably compared with the situation today. The method to be recommended for the analysis of TOC1 should be developed, intercalibrated and agreed upon within three years. The maximum average load of TOC1 from the production of bleached kraft pulp by each Contracting Party should also be considered and agreed upon within three years. The feasibility of establishing a target maximum average load of 1 to 2 kg per metric ton air dry bleached kraft pulp and a proposed timetable for achieving this should be considered at the next meeting of the Commission in 1989;

  h) that the specific loading from each Contracting Party's production of bleached kraft pulp shall not exceed the value of oxygen consumption of 65 kg per metric ton of air dry bleached kraft pulp. The oxygen consumption is determined as chemical oxygen demand using the dichromate method (COD cr);

  i) that biochemical oxygen demand (HOD) shall be reduced in proportion to the reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD cr ) recommended in item h);

for unbleached kraft pulp

  j) in the production of unbleached kraft pulp the reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD cr) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) be respective to the level recommended in items h) and i) above for production of bleached kraft pulp;

for phosphorus in the production of kraft pulp in general

  k) the specific loading of phosphorus from each Contracting Party's kraft pulp production shall not exceed the annual mean value of 60 g per ton of air dry kraft pulp;

for kraft pulp in general

1) the objectives under h) - k) shall be attained by the year 2000 at mills that have started to operate before 1 January 1989, and immediately at mills which will start to operate thereafter,


RECOMMENDS FURTHER, in order to attain the objectives that the Contracting Parties

  • initiate projects and investigations and arrange seminars for the exchange of information and experience, and

  • take efforts to harmonize the monitoring systems for discharges and recipient control, analysis methods, and techniques for determining the toxicity of the effluents. Harmonization of the methods of analysis of dioxines, suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demand (HOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD )m and concentration of total phosphorus (P ° should shaft be aimed at. The comparability of the results should be secured through intercalibration exercises,

RECOMMENDS AS FURTHER ACTION that the Contracting Parties prepare detailed recommendations within five years for the remaining sectors of pulp and paper industry, including also a recommendation giving numerical values for chlorinated organic compounds,

RECOMMENDS ALSO that the Contracting Parties report on the development in pulp and paper industry's effluent loading and on the implementation of related water pollution control measures to the Commission one year after the adoption of the recommendation and thereafter every five years. The first report should concern the year 1988.


*)The term "best available technology" is understood to take into consideration technical and economic feasibility.