Wave

  

    Advisory Committee on Protection of the Sea

 

cool

Home Page

ACOPS Officers

About ACOPS

 

UK Oil Pollution Survey

 

Russian Arctic

Russian Arctic 

GEF Project

 

 

African Process

Climate Change in Sub-Saharan Africa

 

MEH

 

Partners

Publications

Parliamentary Debates

Earlier Initiatives

 

Contact Details

 

Links

 National Plan of Action for the Protection of the 

Arctic Marine Environment

 

Documents prepared in the framework of the GEF PDF-B Project

 

The GEF PDF-B Project "Support to the National Plan of Action for the Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment from Anthropogenic Pollution in the Russian Federation" was signed between UNEP and ACOPS in August 1999 (GF/1100-99-13), and the Project was completed on 31 December 2001. In addition to the UNEP GEF Trust Fund, the Project was co-financed by ACOPS, Canada, Denmark, Finland, the GPA Co-ordination Office, Russian Federation, Sweden and the United States.

 

The main objectives of this Project were: review and evaluation of relevant legislation and administrative arrangements at federal and regional levels; identification, characterisation, and prioritisation of environmental hot-spots; analysis of pollutant transport mechanisms and zones of impact; and analysis of the existing practice in preparation of pre-investment studies in the Russian Federation, as well as development of guidelines for their future preparation.

 

This page contains reports of the meetings held, and documents produced, in the framework of this Project.

 

The files are in Microsoft Word format and have been compressed using Winzip.  Click the icon below to download the latest version of Winzip:

 



 
To download files click on the file Title.

 

 

Document Summary:   The document examines the overall current condition and developmental trends in legislation and administrative regulations relating to environmental protection at federal and regional levels in the Russian Federation and the organisational and legal mechanisms for their application to the Arctic region. Particular attention is devoted to the administrative regulations for environmental protection in connection with mining activities, which play a major role in the regionís economy and exert a considerable impact on environmental conditions.

 

The main document consists of an introduction, three parts and a conclusion. There are also eight annexes on which the main document draws.

 

The introduction explains the main reasons for the preparation of the report, identifies the goals and purposes.

 

Part I examines current social and economic trends in the Russian Arctic that exert a significant influence on the condition of the environment. It identifies the reasons for the existing environmental problems in several areas of the Arctic and describes the political, economic and legal measures that the Russian Government has taken in recent years to improve the social, economic and environmental situation in the Russian North.

 

Parts II and III contain main substance of the report in the form of an overall survey and assessment of legislation and administrative regulations relating to environmental protection. The survey of Russian federal and regional legislation is preceded by a section on international environmental legislation, which examines the main principles on which that legislation, and international cooperation, is based. It lists the major international conventions on the protection of various environmental components, above all the marine environment, and summarises their main provisions. Attention is devoted to the function of the various levels of international agreement in the development of the Russian environmental legislation and the specific instruments that are used for the protection of the arctic environment.

 

Part III is devoted to the analysis of the federal and regional systems of management as applied in the Arctic, with detailed consideration of the system of standards and permits for the emission and release of pollutants by mining enterprises. Part III ends with general conclusions on the ineffectiveness of the system of controls applied to the mining industry and the need to overcome this by improving the organisational and economic mechanisms enshrined in law for environmental management on the basis of new principles and methods. This would make it possible to preserve environmental quality in the Russian Arctic.

 

The Conclusion provides an overall assessment of the state of the legislation and its implementation mechanisms and recommendations on how to improve them. It is noted that, for the past decade, the Russian environmental protection legislation has been developing steadily and that a complex regulatory and legislative system has been established to protect the environment. However, these developments have not, so far, led to a tangible improvement in environmental quality. The authors draw the conclusion that the improvements must continue, especially in the legislation, with a clearer delineation of the federal and regional jurisdictions and enhancement of the mechanism of executive and control procedures to protect the environment and indigenous peoples of the Arctic. Particular attention must be paid to developing a legislative framework that can support the economic mechanism for nature management, together with widespread use of educational, public-awareness and political measures.

 

The document ends with eight annexes upon which the authorsí work was based.  Document Size: 394kb

 


Document Summary:   This document identifies, characterizes and prioritises major concentrations of anthropogenic activities that adversely affect the environment of the Russian Arctic. It also describes and analyses the pathways of pollutant transport in the arctic environment with particular reference to northern Russia. Its purpose is to provide a vehicle for identifying the most seriously impacted areas, particularly those in receiving marine water bodies of the Arctic, and the related causal chains. It concludes with a classification of the degree to which coastal and continental shelf seas bordering the Arctic Ocean are impacted by anthropogenic activities in the Russian Federation.

 

Part I lists the main sources of pollution relevant to the Russian Arctic. It discusses scales of impact, depicts specific industries and the nature of their effects and categorises environmental compartments within which impact zones can be created. This section further defines a total of 147 hot spots identified within the Russian Arctic and describes a procedure for prioritising them on the basis of the nature and severity of environmental impacts. The highest priority hot spots are then characterised in greater detail to provide a basis for causal chain analysis and evaluation of options for intervention to rectify damage or forestall threats.

 

Part II assesses primary transport routes of airborne and waterborne pollutants from identified sources relevant to the Arctic seas. It examines atmospheric conditions and circulation in the north and defines the processes of pollutant transport through atmospheric pathways, providing estimates of pollutant releases to the arctic atmosphere from the Russian Federation, including from conurbations. Air concentrations of contaminants in urban and rural locations, including distant arctic areas, are presented to illustrate to what degree atmospheric composition is affected by emissions from anthropogenic activities. Contaminant transport rates into watersheds and coastal marine areas of the Arctic are estimated. An examination is also made of hydrological transport processes and fluxes, with data on natural and anthropogenically-augmented fluxes of chemicals through river catchments, taking account of both dissolved and suspended matter flows.

 

Part III assesses large-scale transfer of airborne and waterborne pollutants from distant sources and their impact on the marine environment. It includes an analysis of land transport of pollutants, with information on the extent of contamination of soils and vegetation in the Russian north and its association with particular anthropogenic sources. This information is supplemented by evaluations of the severity of such contamination and estimates of the quantities of pollutants washed off from land surfaces into river basins and coastal marine areas.

 

This section also considers the pathways of pollutant transport in estuarine and coastal areas, whether the pollutants enter through direct atmospheric deposition or through river discharge into coastal areas. The extent of removal of contaminants in estuaries through dissolved-particulate exchanges and suspended sediment deposition, seasonal variability in conditions and the effects of polynyas on atmospheric deposition fluxes are all included in the analysis. The above material is then synthesised into an assessment of anthropogenic impact imposed by pollutants on the arctic seas. It is partially based on the extent to which normal biological conditions, such as biodiversity and the abundance, structure and the distributions of populations of species and communities, have been disturbed by pollutants introduced to the environment through anthropogenic activities. Each coastal impact zone within the Russian Arctic is specified in terms of its area and the types and sources of pollutants within it. A weighted evaluation matrix is then used to determine relative priorities for the severity of damage among these areas.

 

The document contains a series of annexes, the first ten of which provide detailed discussion of each major topic relating to the sources, transport and behaviour of pollutants in the Russian northern environment. Annexes XI-XII contain elements for the preparation of the matrix for comparative analysis of the identified hot spots and estuarine and marine impact zones, which is presented in Annex XIII.   Document Size: 10.5 Mb

 

 

Document Summary This document describes a process of identification, characterization and prioritisation of major concentrations of anthropogenic activities that adversely affect the environment of northern (Arctic) regions of the Russian Federation. It also contains specifications of Russian arctic land and marine areas impacted by such anthropogenic activities. Document defines, in terms of location, origin, size and the nature and scale of adverse effects, a total of 147 hot spots identified in the Russian Arctic. It then describes a procedure for determining relative priorities among hot spots based primarily on the nature and severity of environmental impacts. The highest priority hot spots are characterized in greater detail to provide a basis for causal chain analysis and evaluations of options for intervention. Through this process, 17 terrigenous and 4 coastal and marine hot spots are identified as warranting highest priority attention in the context of interventions to rectify existing damage or to forestall threats.

 

The hot spots arise primarily as a result of chemical emissions from mineral and hydrocarbon extraction, non-ferrous metallurgical and pulp and paper industries and the electrical energy generation, heat production, housing, communal services and transport sectors. Other activities giving rise to impacts in the Arctic are also described. It is noted that marked decreases in biological resources are observed in most impact areas, even in those having moderate anthropogenic loads. These interfere with the traditional exploitation of natural resources by indigenous communities and biological diversity. Special attention is drawn to the rapid expansion in the development of oil and gas reserves in the Arctic without adequate account being taken to the capacity for the environment to assimilate their effects. The threats posed by industrial development are compounded by the limited use of environmental and resource protection technologies and the presence of weak environmental controls.

 

The document concludes with five annexes dealing respectively with: criteria for the specification of hot spots and estuarine and marine impact zones; a list of Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPCs) for pollutants in various environmental compartments within the Russian Federation; a package of brief descriptions of the identified hot spots in the Russian Arctic; a set of characterisations of priority hot spots and estuarine and marine impact zones in the Russian Arctic; and a matrix of hot-spot characteristics for comparative analysis among hot spots and estuarine and marine impact zones.   Document Size: 1.8Mb

 


Document Summary
The document consists of two parts: the manual on conducting pre-investment studies and an analysis of such studies already conducted in the Russian Federation, with recommendations to eliminate the errors most typically encountered in the process.

 

The manual is intended for use by Russian and overseas investors. It provides a systematic overview of the most important aspects of developing investment projects for implementation in the Russian Federation. The manual draws only on normative legal and methodological documents officially in force in Russia and does not introduce concepts, terms or definitions absent from those documents. Part of the manual consists of selected principles from those documents; where necessary, passages are reproduced without special acknowledgement. The manual should therefore be regarded as a collation and systematisation of pre-investment study practice. The Manual is intended for investors planning to make capital investments in the Russian economy. Its purpose is to provide an overview of the existing administrative-legal and normative-methodical bases which regulate the conduct of pre-investment studies in Russia. From this point of view, the document may be regarded as an introduction to existing practice in pre-investment research, founded on the normative legislative base officially recognised in Russia. The document is divided into four main sections, which follow on from one another: the main steps which the investor is obliged to take if he wishes to make capital investment into investment projects implemented within Russia; the phases of the investment project as recognised in Russia; the stages of pre-investment preparation of the investment project with a description of the procedures carried out at each stage; and the content of the pre-investment documentation needed for each stage to be completed. In addition, the document presents the approaches recognised in Russia for assessing investment projects and the main terms and definitions officially recognised for use in documents connected with investment project development. The first section examines in detail all of the main steps the investor is obliged to take to implement the investment idea, from the moment that approval is granted for the economic activity to the completion of operations at the object created using the investments, i.e. the objectís closure. It makes it possible to consider, as early as the pre-investment phase, various aspects of the project life cycle as a whole and take them into account during pre-investment preparations. The investment projectís pre-investment preparation includes four stages, the purpose and content of each of which are examined in the third section. Information is provided on the range of documents worked on at each stage and a generalised assessment is made of the methodological and organisational approaches used at each stage. The fourth section provides quite a detailed description of the content of all documents produced during the pre-investment preparation process. The sectionís main purpose is to reflect the rather broad range of information processed and analysed during pre-investment studies, in compliance with the methodological approaches for pre-investment preparation of projects as officially recognised in Russia. The final section of the manual provides a description of the procedures connected with assessment of the investment project. It contains both a description of the overall system of procedures for IP assessment and a description of the systems for conducting separate procedures within the framework of the general system, and above all the procedures connected with the environmental impact assessment.

 

The analysis includes a collated survey of investment situations in Russia and an evaluation of a number of investment projects conducted in Russia, which encountered particular difficulties in implementation. It also contains a large volume of material on the experience of pre-investment studies under the Russian Programme for Organising Investment in Environmental Melioration (RPOI), conducted within the framework of the Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) on a loan to finance the Environmental Management Project.  Document Size: 179kb  

 


Document Summary
:  
This document contains Report of the First Meeting of the Steering Group of the GEF PDF-B Project (GF/1100-99-13): "Support to the National Plan of Action for the Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment from Anthropogenic Pollution in the Russian Federation (NPA-Arctic)". Report contains overview of partners in the implementation of the GEF PDF-B Project and the NPA-Arctic; terms of reference for workshops and working groups, and the work to be done in the intersessional period; overview of meetings; overview of consultants; current policy in Russian Federation regarding the implementation of NPA-Arctic; members of the Inter-Agency Working Group; members of the International Task Team; Russian officials associated with the implementation of the NPA-Arctic; and detailed work plan and timetable for the implementation of the PDF-B Project activities. 
Document Size: 85kb

 


Document Summary
:  
This document contains Report of the Second Meeting of the Steering Group of the GEF PDF-B Project (GF/1100-99-13): "Support to the National Plan of Action for the Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment from Anthropogenic Pollution in the Russian Federation (NPA-Arctic)". Report contains current political and administrative situation in the Russian Federation relevant to the implementation of the Project; list of documents prepared in the framework of the GEF PDF-B Russia Project and the NPA-Arctic; second six-monthly progress report (April - Sept. 2000); list of meetings in the framework of the PDF-B Russia Project and NPA-Arctic; and detailed work plan for the completion of the Project.  
Document Size: 56kb

 


Document Summary:
This document contains Report of the Expert Workshop on Methodology and Policy Considerations. Report contains summaries of individual presentations made during the meeting; methodology for the identification and characterisation of environmental hot-spot in the Russian Arctic; explanation of causal chain or root-cause analysis; approach to the identification, characterisation and prioritisation of hot-spots; procedure for the identification, characterisation and prioritisation of hot-spots; and work plan for the implementation of the activity.  Document Size: 62kb

 

 

Document Summary: This document contains Report of the First Expert Workshop on the Identification and Characterisation of Hot-Spots. Report contains methodology for the identification, characterisation and prioritisation of hot-spots; list of identified hot-spots; examples of preliminary identification of hot-spots; specification for the identification of hot-spots in the Arctic Region of Russia; specifications of entries in Russian Arctic hot-spots table; summary table of identified hot-spots; work plan; content of the final document "Identification, Characterisation, and Prioritisation of Hot-Spots in the Russian Arctic"; content of the document "Analysis of Pathways of Contaminants Transport from River Watersheds to the Arctic Seas. Estuary and Marine impact zones"; and format specifications for the report on routes and mechanisms of pollutant transport.  Document Size: 100kb

 

 

Document Summary: This document contains Report of the Second Expert Workshop on the Identification and Characterisation of Hot-Spots. Report contains review of the progress in the identification, characterisation and prioritisation of hot-spots and work plan for the completion of the work.  Document Size: approx 60kb

 

 

Document Summary: This document contains Report of the Ad Hoc Intersessional Meeting of the Expert Group on the Identification and Characterisation of Hot-Spots. Report contains review of the progress in the identification, characterisation and prioritisation of hot-spots; specifications of entries in Russian Arctic hot-spots table; and ACOPS hot-spot evaluation matrix.  Document Size: 55kb

 

 

Document Summary: This document contains Report of the Ad Hoc Intersessional Meeting of the Expert Group on the Identification and Characterisation of Hot-Spots. Report contains overview of the progress in the implementation of the activity; marine areas matrix; and hot-spots matrix.  Document Size: 57kb

 


Document Summary:
This document contains Report of the First Meeting of the Working Group on Review and Evaluation of Relevant Legislative and Administrative Arrangements at Federal and Regional Levels. Report contains proposal for the content of the final document; and work plan for the completion of the final document. 
Document Size: approx 40kb

 


Document Summary:
This document contains Report of the Second Meeting of the Working Group on Review and Evaluation of Relevant Legislative and Administrative Arrangements at Federal and Regional Levels. Report contains proposal for the content of the final document; work plan for the completion of the final document; and comments by ACOPS on the "Survey and Assessment of Legislation and Administrative Regulations Relating to Environmental Protection at Federal and Regional Levels".  
Document Size: approx 40kb

 

 

Document Summary: This document contains Report of the First Meeting of the Working Group on Analysis of the Existing Practice in Preparation of Pre-investment Studies in the Russian Federation and Development of Guidelines for their Future Preparation. Report contains summary of the discussion held; content of the final document; and work plan for the implementation of this activity.  Document Size: 33kb

 


Document Summary:
This document contains Report of the Second Meeting of the Working Group on Analysis of the Existing Practice in Preparation of Pre-investment Studies in the Russian Federation and Development of Guidelines for their Future Preparation. Report contains review of the draft document prepared by a consultant and agreed on the changes to be made to the document.  
Document Size: 30kb

 


Document Summary:
This document contains Report of the Third Meeting of the Working Group on Analysis of the Existing Practice in Preparation of Pre-investment Studies in the Russian Federation and Development of Guidelines for their Future Preparation. Report contains summary of the discussion, review of the draft final document, comments by reviewers, and programme for the preparation of the final document.  
Document Size: 30kb

 

 

HEAD OFFICE

11 Dartmouth Street, London SW1H 9BN, United Kingdom

cool