Sustainable Development and ICZM Frameworks For Coastal Development and Management

The development of programmes addressing sustainable use of coastal and marine areas and their resources requires consideration for governance, ecological and socioeconomic dimensions, and the inseparable interactions between them.  Integrated Coastal Zone Management forms an integral prerequisite for sustianble development in coastal areas, and provides an adaptive framework to address the constant change present in both communities and the natural environment.  In this vein, PERSGA simultaneously bases its conservation projects on science-based principles as well as on fulfilling the needs of coastal communities and contributing to the global sustainable development agenda.  In response to the later, PERSGA particularly emphasises the priorities set out by the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD). 

The action-orientated World Summit on Sustainable Development (for which PERSGA has gained observation status) identified key targets that, if pursued, will help create a mutually-beneficial global scenario where the environment and the communities that depend on it can both prosper.  Through its socio-economic and ICZM programmes, PERSGA pursues such WSSD goals as restoring depleted fish stocks and curbing destructive fishing patterns, reducing the global loss of biodiversity, and developing sustainable consumption and production patterns based on science-based and life-cycle approaches.

The PERSGA Operational Framework (2006-2010) calls for mainstreaming the environment into major socio economic sectors. Its overall approach will strengthen the capacities of PERSGA countries to deal with the most urgent issues related to Integrated Coastal Zone Management  (ICZM), including strengthening the capacity for the development of economic instruments and financial mechanisms to be applied in ICZM. The analytical economic valuation instrument will serve as an indicator for assessing environmental sustainability, as called for in target 1 of the Millennium Development Goal #7, which call for integrating environment into policies, programs and projects.





“To assist the Governments of the Region in the development of appropriate policies and strategies for conservation of the marine environment of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, the Action Plan should aim to carry out….Assessment of present and future development activities and their major environmental impact in order to evaluate the degree of their influence on the environment and to find appropriate measures to either eliminate or reduce any damaging effects which they may have…” (Action Plan, 1982)



PERSGA’s priority activities relating to sustainable development and the integration of social, economic and environmental considerations into programme development and management include:

  • Legal and Policy Aspects: PERSGA emphasises strong legal mechanisms to ensure long-term sustainable management of coastal areas, and has included multiple clauses in the Jeddah Convention, its Protocols and Action Plan relating to the sustainable development of Member States’ coastal areas.
  • Integrated Coastal Zone Management:  PERSGA works to build capacity in the Region in ICZM planning, and helps guide effective implementation of ICZM plans.
  • Economic valuation:  PERSGA is currently developing a Toolkit that examines how the costs and benefits of ecosystems are distributed.
  • Socio-economic initiatives:  PERSGA is designing a monitoring programme for socio-economic aspects of ICZM.
  • Community Participation Programmes:  The CPP Programmes provide grants and small loans in the form of Small and Medium Projects Programmes, combine with hands-on exposure to alternative and sustainable methods of marine resource use.
  • Cultural heritage:  PERSGA promotes recognition of the importance of cultural heritage linked with the marine environment