Integrated Coastal Zone Management /(ICZM):





The Contracting Parties shall:

“…consider adopting and applying principles of integrated coastal areas management, to provide an umbrella mechanism for biodiversity conservation, marine protected area management and sustainable resource use as appropriate…” (Protocol Concerning Biodiversity and the Establishment of Protected Areas, Part 4, Article 14)

“…shall endeavor to broaden the scope and strengthen the role of EIA as a mechanism for minimizing biodiversity and habitat loss; [EIA] shall be a requirement for any new project or activity likely to have significant impact on coastal and marine biodiversity and habitat in the area, or wider area defined by this Protocol, [and] shall extend to all major components of biodiversity and their bioeconomic value, integrated with social, cultural and economic value, and assessments made over the long-term as well as the short-term…” (Protocol Concerning Biodiversity and the Establishment of Protected Areas, Part 4, Article 15)

“…shall give due consideration to marine environmental effects when planning or executing projects, including an assessment of potential environmental effects, particularly in the coastal areas…[and] undertake to develop, individually or jointly, environmental standards, both technical and other guidelines in accordance with standard scientific practice to assist the planning and execution of their projects in such a way as to minimize their harmful impact on the marine environment…”  Jeddah Convention, Article XI)

“…agree to carry out, within their capabilities, procedures and policies to formulate, approve and implement Integrated Coastal Zone Management programmes…[and] provide technical and institutional support to encourage the national economic and social sectors to align their activities in order to minimise and avoid any adverse and/or negative impacts…(Protocol on the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Sources of Pollution in the RSGA, 2005):


To date, PERSGA has initiated and developed multiple successful ICZM initiatives on both a regional and national scale.  Based on PERSGA’s positive performance and work in this field, the Arab League has selected PERSGA to act as the ICZM implementing organisation for the entire Arab Region, not just the PERSGA Region.  This marks a significant accolade for PERSGA and show-cases the strength of PERSGA’s ICZM programmes and activities.


Latest Activities:

The Red Sea State ICZM Office, Sudan:

In March 2006, PERSGA conducted a roundtable entitled “Partnership for the Sustainable Development of the Red Sea Coast in Sudan”  that brought together national and international stakeholders and experts to develop a framework for the implementation of an ICZM programme for Sudan.  These deliberations then led to the January 2007 establishment of an official ICZM Office in Port Sudan, under the custody of the Red Sea State.  This office acts as a Secretariat for coordinating and orchestrating ICZM activities along the Sudanese coast and serves as the main focal point for ICZM partners.

The Office is currently developing a 10-year Strategy, and has prepared Framework Booklets in both Arabic  and English  .  This Strategy is based on three Phases of project implementation, which include:

  • Phase 1 (2008-2010) - Foundational Roadmap: This Phase will provide the foundation for the development of the capacity and direction for each of the ICZM Programmes and partners.

  • Phase 2 (2011-2013) - Operational Phase:  During this Phase, the principles and plans adopted for the roadmap will be translated into actions and operating projects.

  • Phase 3 (2014-continuous) - Sustainability: After the experimentation and testing of activities in Phase 2, the lessons-learnt will become ingrained into an embedded programme for sustainable coastal management for the long-term benefit of Sudan's coastal areas.

For more information on the Office Strategy and activities, please visit the ICZM Office website:

To facilitate ICZM implementation in Sudan, PERSGA, under the supervision of the Red Sea State and in direct coordination with the ICZM Office, is working with a consortium of partners (the Cousteau Society, African Parks Foundation, UNIDO, international and local experts, local NGOs, and with general support from the European Commission), in order to implement a project entitled “Survey for the Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) of the Red Sea Coast of Sudan”. 

Through this Project, the ICZM Office, PERSGA and partners will work towards assessing, strengthening and implementation the following ICZM-related components: 1) Governance, Legal Issues and ICZM; 2) Biodiversity Survey-Work; 3) Socioeconomic Aspects; 3) Risk Management and EIA; 5) Sudanese Red Sea GIS Phase 1; 6) Cultural Aspects; 7) Ecotourism Assessments; 8) Dissemination of Results, Education and Outreach; 9) Project Management.

As such, the Project’s main purpose is to identify the adequate measures and actions that favour sustainable development, meeting both the needs of coastal populations and the conservation of the marine and coastal environment. Furthermore, the Project places the improvement of coastal livelihoods and the reduction of poverty at the heart of its action plan.  The expected result is an operational 4-year work-plan on sustainable development in the coastal areas of the Red Sea State.

Previous and On-going Activities:

The PERSGA ICZM Handbook:

PERSGA’s Handbook for Integrated Coastal Zone Management and Planning for the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden Region constitutes a valuable tool for guiding ICZM Programmes in the RSGA Region, and has been published in both Arabic and English.  The Handbook takes an action-orientated approach to guide ICZM Programmes, by including practical case studies from the Region aligned with each chapter. The Handbook includes the following chapters:

Chapter 1: Introduction 
Chapter 2: Basics Of Coastal Planning And Management Chapter 3: Institutional Requirements For Coastal Planning And Management
Chapter 4: The Coastal Planning Process
Chapter 5: Integrated Coastal Zone Management



ICZM Indicators:

PERSGA currently works with the International Oceanographic Commission (IOC) to design an ICZM Monitoring Programme to evaluate the efficiency of ICZM implementation in its Member States.  The IOC manual (A Handbook for Measuring the Progress and Outcomes of Integrated Coastal and Ocean Management) serves as an important resource for PERSGA’s activities in this regard.

Evaluation of ICZM Experiences in Egypt, Jordan and Saudi Arabia:

The three northern countries in the PERSGA Region, namely Jordan, Egypt and Saudi Arabia, have had an active coastal planning and management programme for some time and have gained considerable experience.  In order to record this experience and transfer the lessons-learnt throughout the Region, PERSGA initiated an evaluation of ICZM in each of these countries in 2003.  To do this, PERSGA helped set up Working Groups in the three countries with the task to prepare a Country Report on their ICZM experience with recommendations, if necessary, on improvements to make the process more effective.  The Country Reports from Egypt, Jordan  and Saudi Arabia  that resulted were then presented at a Regional Seminar on Integrated Coastal Zone Management and Planning, so that all PERSGA States could gain insights into their experiences.  These Reports were then supplemented by an international expert review in 2004 that gave further reflection on ICZM in Egpyt , Jordan, and Saudi Arabia.

ICZM Model Activities:

PERSGA has conducted ICZM Model Activities (MAs) in Yemen, Djibouti and Sudan. The MAs were based on a Regional template prepared by PERSGA that meets the unique circumstances of its Member States.  All Model Activities were conducted using a participatory approach that included all relevant stakeholders in each country. 

Djibouti Model Activity:

PERSGA first conducted a comprehensive training programme on ICZM for a team of national experts, and then hired the team to prepare the 'coastal profile document' for Djibouti  .  This document formed the basis upon which Djibouti’s ICZM Plan was then developed  .  The comprehensive Plan (prepared in French) also includes a summary in English  , a Country Report prepared by PERSGA and a list of pilot projects     After the conclusion of the Model Activity, PERSGA conducted a follow-up mission  to Djibouti to assess the progress and recommend a way-forward for the implementation of the pilot projects based on the model activity examples.

Sudan Model Activity:  

After receiving training from PERSGA, a team of national experts produced a coastal profile  for Sudan, to help with the consecutive development of an ICZM Plan PERSGA then conducted capacity-building to enable the Plan’s implementation.  As a result, Sudan has witnessed significant milestones towards the adoption of ICZM for its coastal areas.

PERSGA has also conducted multiple specialised trainings to strengthen ICZM projects in Sudan.  Most notably, PERSGA has orchestrated, in partnership with PEMSEA, a training course on Conflict Resolution and Negotiation skills in Coastal Management 
.   PERSGA worked with a local NGO (the Sudanese Environment Conservation Society-Red Sea Branch) to develop a Conflict Resolution Training Kit, which is actively being used to solve disputes in the Red Sea State. PERSGA has also conducted training on communication skills for stakeholders using the PERSGA Communication Manual.

Yemen Model Activity:

Aden was selected as the model area for the implementation of Yemen’s ICZM model activity .   PERSGA trained and hired a team of national experts to prepare a coastal profile document, then helped develop an ICZM Plan  for Aden.  The Aden ICZM Plan was officially adopted by the Government of Yemen with a Ministerial decree in 2004. PERSGA then conducted further capacity-building activities to enable a Yemeni National ICZM Team to implement the Plan.  The Organisation has also facilitated public awareness campaigns and the establishment of a public information centre in Aden. 

Public Participation:

PERSGA commissioned a field study to review public participation in ICZM in the coastal areas of Aqaba (Jordan) and Yemen (Aden)  . The study analyzed current levels of public participation and its effect on the livelihood of residents of these areas.  The main aims of the study were to:

  • Investigate the effectiveness of the ICZM plans in promoting good governance and public participation and to review whether laws exist to support public participation.

  • Prepare recommendations for a best practice model for public participation in ICZM for the Red Sea Gulf of Aden Region and the best tool to implement public participation.
  • Examine how ICZM plans can support poverty alleviation and economic growth and global partnership, by studying how current practice is improving the livelihood of the selected stakeholders: the fishing community, the tourism sector, and the industrial sector.


As an important cross-cutting principle, PERSGA focuses on including on-the-job training in all of its ICZM activities, and has conducted multiple trainings throughout the Region with specialise themes relating to ICZM (such as conflict resolution in Sudan).  To provide basic training for its Member States, PERSGA initiated an exchange programme with PEMSEA in 2004.  The Training Workshop on Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) [24] brought together 25 participants from 11 participating countries from the PERSGA and East Asia Region. The workshop discussions and field visits were successful in providing the participants with exposure on the practical issues and best practices on ICZM program implementation.